The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs found in vertebrates. They are located on the left and right in the retroperitoneal space, and in adult, humans are about 11 centimeters (4.3 in) in length. They receive blood from the paired renal arteries; blood exits into the paired renal veins. Each kidney is attached to a ureter, a tube that carries excreted urine to the bladder.

The nephron is the structural and functional unit of the kidney. Each human adult kidney contains around 1 million nephrons while a mouse kidney contains only about 12,500 nephrons. The kidney participates in the control of the volume of various body fluid compartments, fluid osmolality, acid-base balance, various electrolyte concentrations, and removal of toxins. Filtration occurs in the glomerulus: one-fifth of the blood volume that enters the kidneys is filtered. Examples of substances reabsorbed are solute-free water, sodium, bicarbonate, glucose, and amino acids. Examples of substances secreted are hydrogen, ammonium, potassium and uric acid. The kidneys also carry out functions independent of the nephron. For example, they convert a precursor of vitamin D to its active form, calcitriol; and synthesize the hormones erythropoietin and renin.

Urology addresses diseases of kidney (and urinary tract) anatomy: these include cancer, renal cysts, kidney stones, and ureteral stones, and urinary tract obstruction.


Retrograde Intra Renal Surgeries (RIRS)
Endoscopic Combined Intra Renal Surgeries (ECIRS)